Biomechatronics | Publications
Massachusetts institute of technology, MIT, MIT Media Lab, robotics, prosthetics, prostheses, exoskeletons, orthoses, orthosis, science, engineering, biomechanics, mechatronics,
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Neural Interfacing and Control    | Soft Tissue Biomechanics    | Prosthetic Design    |   Orthotic and Exoskeletal Design   |   Organismal Biomechanics and Control

Skeletal Muscle Biomechanics and Control   |   Clinical Science

Book Chapters   |   Ph.D. Theses   |   Patents


Neural Interfacing and Control

 

 

S. S. Srinivasan, M. J. Carty, P. W. Calvaresi, T. R. Clites, B. E. Maimon, C. R. Taylor, A. N. Zorzos, H. Herr
On prosthetic control: A regenerative agonist-antagonist myoneural interface
Science Robotics, vol 2 31, May 2017

B. Maimon, A. N. Zorzos, R. Bendell, A. Harding, M. Fahmi, S. Srinivasan, P. Calvaresi, and H. M. Herr.
Transdermal Optogenetic Peripheral Nerve Stimulation,
Journal of Neural Engineering 14, no. 3 (2017): 034002.

Clites, T. R., Carty, M. J., Srinivasan, S., Zorzos, A. N., & Herr, H. M. A murine model of a novel surgical architecture for proprioceptive muscle feedback and its potential application to control of advanced limb prostheses. Journal of Neural Engineering, 14, aa614b, 2017. http://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aa614b

B. Maimon, A. N. Zorzos, K. W. Song, R. Bendell, R. Riso, and H. M. Herr.
Assessment of Nerve Regeneration through a Novel Microchannel Array,
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 4, no. 2, Jun. 2016.

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Soft Tissue Biomechanics

B.J. Ranger, B.W. Anthony, H.M. Herr, K.M. Moerman.
“Indentation and inverse FEA-based soft tissue constitutive parameter identification: simplified versus anatomically accurate model geometries.” European Mechanics Society (Euromech) Conference – Colloqium 585: Advanced Experimental Methods in Tissue Biomechanics, 2017.

Lin, B., Moerman, K. M., McMahan, C. G., Pasch, K. A., & Herr, H. M.
Low-Cost Methodology for Skin Strain Measurement of a Flexed Biological Limb.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, PP(99), 2016.

Sengeh DM, Moerman, K. M., Petron A, Herr H.M.
Multi-Material 3-D Viscoelastic Model of a Transtibial Residuum from In-vivo Indentation and MRI Data
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 59, 218–228, 2016.

Moerman, K. M., Simms, C. K., Nagel, T.
Control of tension-compression asymmetry in Ogden hyperelasticity with application to soft tissue modelling
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 56, 218–228, 2016. 

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Prosthetic Design

R. Stolyarov, G. Burnett, and H. Herr.
Translational Motion Tracking of Leg Joints for Enhanced Prediction of Walking Tasks. 
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, PP(99), 2017.

J.F. Duval, and H. M. Herr
FlexSEA: Flexible, Scalable Electronics Architecture for Wearable Robotic Applications
IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), Singapore, June 26-29 2016.

J.F. Duval, and H. M. Herr
FlexSEA-Execute: Advanced Motion Controller for Wearable Robotic Applications
IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), Singapore, June 26-29 2016.

E. J. Rouse, N. C. Villagaray-Carski, R. W. Emerson, and H. M. Herr
Design and testing of a bionic dance prosthesis
PLOS One, Volume: 10, Issue: 8: e0135148, 2015

E. J. Rouse, L. M. Mooney and H. M. Herr
Clutchable series-elastic actuator: Implications for prosthetic knee design
International Journal of Robotics Research, 2014, in press

O. A. Kannape and H. M. Herr
Volitional Control of Ankle Plantar Flexion in a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis during Stair-Ambulation,
International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, August. 2014.

E. J. Rouse, L. M. Mooney, E. C. Martinez-Villalpando and H. M. Herr
A clutchable series-elastic actuator: design of a robotic knee prosthesis for minimum energy consumption,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2013

L. M. Mooney and H. M. Herr
Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2013

J. Wang, O. A. Kannape, and H. M. Herr
Proportional EMG Control of Ankle Plantar Flexion in a Powered Transtibial Prosthesis,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2013

D. Sengeh and H. M. Herr.
A variable impedance prosthetic socket for a transtibial amputee designed from MRI data,
Journal of Orthotics & Prosthetics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 129-138, 2013.

M. T. Farrell and H. M. Herr,
A method to determine the optimal features for control of a powered lower-limb prostheses,
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2011.

E. C. Martinez-Villalpando, L. M. Mooney, G. A. Elliott and H. M. Herr.
Antagonistic Active Knee Prosthesis. A Metabolic Cost of Walking Comparison with a Variable-Damping Prosthetic Knee,
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2011.

J. Markowitz, P. Krishnaswamy, M. F. Eilenberg, K. Endo, C. Barnhart, and H. M. Herr.
Speed adaptation in a powered transtibial prosthesis controlled with a neuromuscular model,
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 366, no. 1570, pp. 1621-1631, 2011.

M. F. Eilenberg, H. Geyer, and H. M. Herr.
Control of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis based on a neuromuscular model,
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 164-173, 2010.

S. Au, J. Weber, and H.M Herr.
Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Improves Walking Metabolic Economy,
IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 51-66, 2009.

K. Endo, E. Swart, H. M. Herr,
An artificial gastrocnemius for a transtibial prosthesis,
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, pp.5034-5037, Sep. 2009.

E. C. Martinez-Villalpando, and H. M. Herr.
Agonist-antagonist active knee prosthesis: A preliminary study in level-ground walking,
Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (JRRD), vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 361-73, 2009.

E.C. Martinez-Villalpando, J. Weber, G. Elliott, and H. M. Herr.
Design of an agonist-antagonist active knee prosthesis,
Proceedings of IEEE BIORobotics Conference, Scottsdale, AZ, 2008.

E.C. Martinez-Villalpando, J. Weber, G. Elliott, and H. M. Herr
Biomimetic prosthetic knee using antagonistic muscle-like activation,
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE), Boston, MA, 2008.

S. K. Au, M. Berniker, and H. M. Herr.
Powered ankle-foot prosthesis to assist level-ground and stair-descent gaits,
Neural Networks, vol. 21, pp. 654-666, 2008.

S. K. Au, and H. M. Herr.
Powered ankle-foot prosthesis,
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 52-59, 2008.

H. Herr, J. Weber, and S. Au.
Powered ankle-foot prosthesis,
Biomechanics of the Lower Limb in Health, Disease and Rehabilitation, pp. 72-74, Sep. 2007.

E. C. Martinez-Villalpando, H. M. Herr.
Estimation of ground reaction force and zero moment point on a powered ankle-foot prosthesis,
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology International Conference, Lyon, France, pp. 4687-4692, 2007.

S. K. Au, J. Weber, H. M. Herr and E.C. Martinez-Villapando,
Powered ankle-foot prosthesis for the improvement of amputee ambulation,
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology International Conference, Lyon, France, pp. 3020-3026, 2007.

S. K. Au, J. Weber, and H. Herr.
Biomechanical design of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis,
IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, pp. 298–303, 2007.

E. C. Martinez-Villalpando and H. M. Herr.
An agonist-antagonist actuator for artificial leg joints,
U.S. National Congress on Computational Mechanics, San Francisco, CA, 2007.

R. Aaron, H. M. Herr, D. Ciombor, L. Hochberg, J. Donoghue, C. Briant, J. Morgan, and M. Ehrlich.
Horizons in prosthesis development for the restoration of limb function,
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 198-204, 2006.

D. Paluska and H. M. Herr.
The effect of series elasticity on actuator power and work output: Implications for robotic and prosthetic joint design,
Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 54, pp. 667–673, 2006.

S. K. Au and H. M. Herr.
Initial experimental study on dynamic interaction between an amputee and a powered ankle-foot prosthesis,
Workshop on Dynamic Walking: Mechanics and Control of Human and Robot Locomotion, Ann Arbor, MI, May 2006.

S. K. Au, P. Dilworth, and H. M. Herr.
An ankle-foot emulation system for the study of human walking biomechanics,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Orlando, FL, pp. 2939-2945, May 2006.

J. Johansson, D. Sherrill, P. Riley, P. Bonato, and H. M. Herr.
A clinical comparison of variable-damping and mechanically-passive prosthetic knee devices,
American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 563-575, 2005.

S. K. Au, P. Bonato, and H. M. Herr.
An EMG-position controlled system for an active ankle-foot prosthesis: An initial experimental study,
IEEE 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR): Frontiers of the Human-Machine Interface, Chicago, IL, pp. 375-379, Jun. 2005.

H. M. Herr and R. Kornbluh.
New horizons for orthotic and prosthetic technology: Artificial muscle,
Smart Structures and Materials: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, San Diego, CA, Mar. 2004.

H. M. Herr.
Multidisciplinary approaches to limb loss: A chain of events leading to a single step,
Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, White House/VA Conference, Emerging Technologies, Washington, D.C., pp. 76-80, Oct. 2004.

H. M. Herr and A. Wilkenfeld.
User-adaptive control of a magnetorhelogical prosthetic knee,
Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30, pp. 42-55, 2003.

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Orthotic and Exoskeletal Design

L. M. Mooney and H. M. Herr.
Biomechanical walking mechanisms underlying the metabolic reduction caused by an autonomous exoskeleton,
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 11, January. 2016.

L. M. Mooney, E. J. Rouse and H. M. Herr.
Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking,
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 11, pp. 151, November. 2014.

L. M. Mooney, E. J. Rouse and H. M. Herr.
Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking,
International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, August. 2014.

G. Elliott, A. Marecki and H. Herr.
Design of a Clutch–Spring Knee Exoskeleton for Running,
Journal of Medical Devices, vol 8, no. 3, 031002-031002-11, July. 2014.

L. M. Mooney, E. J. Rouse and H. M. Herr.
Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking during load carriage,
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 6, pp. 80, May. 2014.

G. Elliott, G.S. Sawicki, A. Marecki, H. Herr.
The biomechanics and energetics of human running using an elastic knee exoskeleton,
International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2013.

A. M. Grabowski and H. M. Herr.
Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping,
Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 670-678, 2009.

H. Herr.
Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design challenges and future directions,
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 21, Jun. 2009.

A. M. Dollar and H. Herr.
Design of a quasi-passive knee exoskeleton to assist running,
Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Nice, France, Sep. 2008.

A. Dollar and H. M. Herr.
Lower Extremity Exoskeletons and Active Orthoses: Challenges and State-of-the-Art,
IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Special Issue on Biorobotics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 144-158, 2008.

C. Walsh, K. Endo, and H. M. Herr.
A quasi-passive leg exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation,
International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 487-506, 2007.

A. Dollar and H. M. Herr.
Active orthoses for the lower-limbs- Challenges and state of the art,
Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), Noordwijk, Netherlands, pp. 968-977, Jun. 2007.

C. Walsh, K. Pasch, and H. M. Herr.
An autonomous, underactuated exoskeleton for loadcarrying augmentation,
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Beijing, China, Oct. 2006.

C. Walsh, D. Paluska, K. Pasch, W. Grand, A. Valiente, and H. M. Herr.
Development of a lightweight, underactuated exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Orlando, FL, pp. 2939-2945, May 2006.

J. Blaya and H. M. Herr.
Adaptive control of a variable-impedance ankle-foot orthosis to assist drop-foot gait,
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering. vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 24-31, 2004.

H. M. Herr, A. Wilkenfeld, and J. Blaya.
Patient-adaptive prosthetic and orthotic leg systems,
Proceedings of the 12th Nordic Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp. 123-128, Jun. 2002.

H. Herr and N. Langman.
Optimization of human-powered elastic mechanisms for endurance amplification,
Structural Optimization, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 65–67, Feb. 1997.

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Organismal Biomechanics and Control

P. Krishnaswamy, E. N. Brown, and H. M. Herr.
Human leg model predicts ankle muscle-tendon morphology, state, roles and energetics in walking,
PLoS Computational Biology, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2011.

H. Geyer and H. Herr.
A muscle-reflex model that encodes principles of legged mechanics produces human walking dynamics and muscle activities,
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, 2010.

K. Endo and H. Herr.
Human walking model predicts joint mechanics, electromyography and mechanical economy,
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), St. Louis, MO, Oct. 2009.

K. Endo and H. Herr.
A model of muscle-tendon function in human walking,
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Kobe, Japan, May 2009.

T. Farrell and H. Herr.
Angular momentum primitives for human turning: Control implications for biped robots,
8th IEEE-RS International Conference on Humanoids, 2008.

H.M. Herr and M. Popovic.
Angular momentum in human walking,
Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 211, no. 4, pp. 467-481, 2008.

M. Vukobratovic, H. Herr, B. Borovac, M. Popovic, A Hofmann, M Jovanovic, and V. Potkonjak.
Biological Principles of Control Selection for a Humanoid Robot’s Dynamic Balance Preservation.
International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp 639-678, 2008.

M. Popovic, A. Goswami, and H. M. Herr.
Ground reference points in legged locomotion: Definitions, biological trajectories and control implications,
International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1013-1032, 2005.

A. Seyfarth, H. Geyer, and H. M. Herr.
Swing-leg retraction: a simple control model for stable running,
The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 206, pp. 2547-2555, 2003.

A. Hofmann, M. Popovic, and H. Herr.
Humanoid standing control: learning from human demonstration,
Journal of Automatic Control, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2002.

H. M. Herr, G. T. Huang, and T. A. McMahon.
A model of scale effects in mammalian quadrupedal running,
Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 205, no. 7, pp. 959-967, 2002.

A. E. Kerdok, A. A. Biewener, T. A. McMahon, P. G. Weyand, and H. M. Herr.
Energetics and mechanics of human running on surfaces of different stiffnesses,
Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 469-478, 2002.

H. M. Herr and T. A. McMahon.
A galloping horse model,
The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 26–37, Jan. 2001.

H. M. Herr and T. A. McMahon.
A trotting horse model,
The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 566–581, Jun. 2000.

J. J. Hu, J. E. Pratt, C.-M. Chew, H. M. Herr, and G. A. Pratt.
Virtual model based adaptive dynamic control of a biped walking robot,
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 337–348, Sep. 1999.

A. Hofmann, M. Popovic, and H. M. Herr.
Exploiting angular momentum to enhance bipedal center-of-mass control,
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA ’09), pp. 4423-4429, 2009.

K. Endo, D. Paluska, and H.M. Herr.
A quasi-passive model of human leg function in level-ground walking,
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Beijing, China, Oct. 2006.

M. Popovic and H.M. Herr.
Global motion control and support base planning,
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Edmonton, Canada, Aug. 2005.

M. Popovic, A. Hofmann, and H. Herr.
Angular momentum regulation during human walking: Biomechanics and control,
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 3, pp. 2405–2411, 2004.

M. Popovic, A. Hofmann, and H. Herr.
Zero spin angular momentum control: Definition and applicability,
4th IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, vol. 1, pp. 478–493, 2004.

A. Hofmann, S. Massaquoi, M. Popovic, and H. Herr.
A sliding controller for bipedal balancing using integrated movement of contact and non-contact limbs,
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 1952–1959, 2004.

M. Popovic and A. Englehart.
Angular momentum primitives for human walking: Biomechanics and control,
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 1685–1691, 2004.

H. Herr, G. Pratt, R. Dennis, N. Rosenthal, and R. Marsh.
From swimming to walking: Examples of how biology is helping us design better machines,
Second International Congress on Motion Systems, Jena, Germany, Jul. 2001.

J. Hu, J. Pratt, C.-M. Chew, H. Herr, and G. Pratt.
Adaptive virtual model control of a bipedal walking robot,
IEEE International Joint Symposia on Intelligence and Systems, pp. 245–251, 1998.

D.H. Gates, J. Lelas, U. Della Croce, H. M. Herr, and P. Bonato.
Characterization of ankle function during stair ambulation,
26th International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004.

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Skeletal Muscle Biomechanics and Control

W. Farahat and H. M. Herr.
Optimal workloop energetics of muscle-actuated systems an impedance matching view,
PLoS Computational Biology, vol. 6, no. 6, 2010.

W. Farahat and H. M. Herr.
Impedance matching as a means of enhancing mechanical energetics in muscle-actuated systems,
Adaptive Motion in Animals and Machine, Cleveland, OH, Jun. 2008.

W. Farahat and H. M. Herr.
Workloop energetics of antagonist muscles,
28th International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, New York, NY, 2006.

W. Farahat and H. M. Herr.
An apparatus for characterization and control of isolated muscle,
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 473-481, 2005.

W. Farahat and H. M. Herr.
A method for identification of hammerstein models of electrically stimulated muscle,
27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Shanghai, China, Sep. 2005.

H. M. Herr and B. Dennis.
A swimming robot actuated by living muscle tissue,
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 1, no. 6, 2004.

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Clinical Science

B.J. Ranger, M.Feigin, X. Zhang, A. Mirealt, R. Raskar, H.M. Herr, and B.W. Anthony.
3D optical imagery for motion compensation in a limb ultrasound system“.
Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging, 2016.

B.J. Ranger, M. Feigin, N. Pestrov, X. Zhang, V. Lempitsky, H.M. Herr, B.W. Anthony.
Motion compensation in a tomographic ultrasound imaging system: toward volumetric scans of a limb for prosthetic socket design”.
Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference, 2015.

D. Hill and H. M. Herr.
Effects of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis on kinetic loading of the contralateral limb: a case series,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2013.

H. M. Herr and A. M. Grabowski.
Bionic ankle-foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation,
Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 279, no. 1728, pp. 457–464, Feb. 2012.

C. P. McGowan, A. M. Grabowski, W. J. McDermott, H. M. Herr, and R. Kram.
Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses,
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 9, no. 73, pp. 1975-1982, 2012.

R. Kram, A. M. Grabowski, C. P. McGowan, M. B. Brown, and H. M. Herr.
Counterpoint: Artificial legs do not make artificially fast running speeds possible,
Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 1012–1014, Apr. 2010.

A. M. Grabowski, C. P. McGowan, W. J. McDermott, M. T. Beale, R. Kram, and H. M. Herr.
Running-specific prostheses limit ground-force during sprinting,
Biology Letters, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 201-204, 2010.

P. G. Weyand, M. W. Bundle, C. P. McGowan, A. Grabowski, M. B. Brown, R. Kram, and H. Herr.
The fastest runner on artificial legs: Different limbs, similar function?,
Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 903–911, Sep. 2009.

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Book Chapters

H. Herr, G. P. Whiteley, and D. Childress.
Chapter 5: Cyborg Technology – Biomimetic Orthotic and Prosthetic Technology,
SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2003.

H. Krebs, N. Hogan, W. Durfee, and H. Herr.
Chapter 48: Rehabilitation Robotics, Orthotics, and Prosthetics,
Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation Vol. 2, 2004.

H. Herr, R.G. Dennis,
Engineered Muscle Actuators: Cells & Tissues: CRC Press, 2005.

M. B. Popovic, A. Goswami, and H. Herr.
Ground reference points in legged locomotion: Definitions, biological trajectories and control implications,
The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 24, pp. 1013-1032, 2005.

A. Mulgaonkar, R. Kornbluh, and H. Herr.
Chapter 19: A new frontier for orthotics and prosthetics: application of dielectric elastomer actuators to bionics, 2008.

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PhD Theses

Martinez Villalpando, Ernesto.
Design and evaluation of a biomimetic agonist-antagonist active knee prosthesis.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012.

Elliott, Grant.
Design and evaluation of a quasi-passive robotic knee brace: on the effects of parallel elasticity on human running..
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012.

Endo, Ken.
A model of muscle-tendon function in human walking.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012.

Au, Samuel K.
Powered ankle-foot prosthesis for the Improvement of amputee walking economy.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007.

Farahat, Waleed A.
Optimal workloop energetics of muscle-actuated systems.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007.

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Patents

H. Herr, J. Blaya, G. Pratt, inventors; Active Ankle Foot Orthosis. US Patent 8376971. 2013.

H. M. Herr, A. G. Hofmann, M. B. Popovic, inventors; Biomimetic Motion and Balance Controllers for Use in Prosthetics, Orthotics and Robotics. US Patent 7313463. 2007.

H. Herr, A. Seyfarth, H. Geyer, inventors; Speed-Adaptive Control Scheme for Legged Running Robots. US Patent 7295892. 2007.

H. Herr, inventor; Variable-Mechanical-Impedance Artificial Legs. US Patent 20040064195. 2004.

B. W. Deffenbaugh, H. M. Herr, G. A. Pratt, M. B. Wittig, inventors; Electronically Controlled Prosthetic Knee. US Patent 6764520. 2004.

H. M. Herr, A. Wilkenfeld, O. Bleck, inventors; Speed-Adaptive and Patient-Adaptive Prosthetic Knee. US Patent 6610101. 2003.

H. Herr, R. I. Gamow, inventors; Shoe and Foot Prosthesis with Bending Beam Spring Structures. US Patent 6029374. 2000.

H. Herr, R. I. Gamow, inventors; Shoe and Foot Prosthesis with Bending Beam Spring Structures. US Patent 5701686. 1997.

H. M. Herr, inventor; Crutch with Elbow and Shank Springs. US Patent 5458143. 1995.

R. I. Gamow, H. M. Herr, inventors; Shoe and Foot Prosthesis with a Coupled Spring System. US Patent 5367790. 1994.

B. M. Gosthnian, H. M. Herr, inventors; Inflatable Limb Prosthesis with Preformed Inner Surface. US patent 4923475. 1990.

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